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Arabic Term English Term Literally English
'Aks al-'Inah Reverse ‘Inah Literally: ‘inah is a loan.
'aqd tauthiqiy   A guarantee contract
'ariyah   A beneficial contract in which the borrower enjoys the usufruct of an asset without fee
'umum al-nahyi   General prohibitions
'uqubah maliyyah   Financial penalty
'uqud tauthiqat   Plural of `aqd tauthiqiy
'urf al-iqtisadiyyah   Common practice in economic activities
Ada' Pay or Perform Literally: to deliver or connect. Ada’ of a trust means to give it back to its owner.
Adl Temperate Literally: moderation in matters.
Afwu Pardon Literally: to leave alone; to erase.
Ahd Covenant Literally: directive, safeguard, and confirmed.
Ahliyah & Dhimmah Legal Capacity & Liability Legal Capacity & Liability
Ahliyyah Legal Capacity Literally: fitness to undertake something.
Ajal Term Literally: time limit; also, the time in which something occurs.
Ajir Worker -Worker
Ajr Wage Literally: reward given for a work or service. Allah says: “We would then have given them from Our presence a great reward.” Surah al-Nisa' (4):67.
Ajr al-Mithl Reasonable Wage/Rent -Reasonable Wage/Rent
Ajr Musamma Stipulated Wage Stipulated Wage
akhz al-ajr 'ala al-jah   Remuneration that is based on good name or good reputation
al-'Adalah Moderation Literally: moderation, integrity, and balance.
al-Aqd al-mu'allaq Conditional Contract Literally: mu’allaq means attached to something.
al-Aqd al-mubham Ambiguous Contract Literally: ibham is what is difficult to perceive with the senses if it is physical and difficult to comprehend if it is a mental construct.
al-Aqd al-mudaf Contract Appended [to the Future] Literally: idafah is adding or relating one thing to another.
al-Aqd al-munjaz Accomplished Contract n/a
al-Aqid Contractor Literally: the active participle of ‘aqada, which was previously defined.
al-Bay' al-Munajjaz Unconditional Sale Literally: najiza means done and completed.
Al-Darurat Ad-Diniyyah Religious Obligations -Religious Obligations
al-Dayn al-hal Current Debt Literally: a debt, payment of which is due.
al-Dayn al-marju Collectable Debt Literally: raja' means hope, the opposite of despair.
Al-Dayn al-mu'ajjal Deferred Debt Literally: ajjala means to postpone, to put something off until a later time.
Al-Dayn al-mushtarak Joint Debt Literally: ishtirak means mixing two ownerships.
Al-Dayn al-mustaqirr Confirmed Debt Literally: istiqrar means stability.
Al-Dayn al-muwathaq Secured Debt Literally: muwathaq means confirmed, consolidated and stable.
Al-Dayn al-Sahih Valid Debt Literally: sahih means free from defects and diseases.
Al-Dayn ghayr al-marju Doubtful Debt n/a
Al-Dayn ghayr al-mushtarak or al-Dayn al-mustaqill Independent Debt n/a
Al-Dayn ghayr al-mustaqirr Unconfirmed Debt n/a
al-dayn ghayr al-sahih Invalid Debt n/a
al-ithra' bi la sabab Effortless Enrichment Literally: ithra’: to be in no need; derived from tharwah, an abundance of wealth.
al-kafalah al-mu'allaqah Conditional Guarantee n/a
al-kafalah al-mudafah Guarantee Appended [to the Future] n/a
al-kafalah al-munjazah Expedited Guarantee Warrant n/a
al-kafalah bi al-taslim Guarantee of Delivery Literally: taslim is delivery while tasallum is receipt.
al-Kafil Guarantor n/a
al-Kafilah Guarantee Literally: kafalah is assurance, its original meaning is related to joining and commitment.
al-kali bi al-kali Bilaterally Deferred Sale Literally: is credit, loan, and deferral.
al-khiyar al-hukmi Judgment Option n/a
al-ma'qud 'alayhi Basis of Contract n/a
al-madin Debtor n/a
al-makful 'anhu The Guaranteed Person n/a
al-makful bihi What is Used as Guaranteed n/a
al-makful lahu Beneficiary of the Guarantee n/a
al-Mal al- istihlaki Consumable Wealth n/a
al-Mal al-'amm Public Wealth n/a
al-Mal al-halal Lawful Wealth n/a
al-Mal al-haram Illicit Wealth n/a
al-Mal al-isti'mali Wealth That Is Not Consumable n/a
al-Mal al-khas Private Wealth n/a
al-Mal al-mahjur Legally Restricted Wealth Literally: hajr is to surround something and deny access to it.
al-Mal al-mushtarak Jointly Owned Wealth n/a
al-Mal al-mustaqill Independently Owned Wealth n/a
al-Mal al-nami Growing Wealth Literally: nama is an increase.
al-Mal halal mukhtalit bi almal al-haram Lawful Wealth Mixed with Unlawful Wealth n/a
al-Rahn Pledge The Arabic word means to withhold
Al-Salam Delivery The Arabic word means to advance.
Al-Sawm 'ala sawm al-Ghayr Intervening To Outbid -Intervening To Outbid
Al-Shirkat fi al-bay' Partnership in Sale n/a
Al-Takfil The Act of Warrantee n/a
al-Uqud al-Asliyyah Principal Contracts n/a
al-Uqud al-Musammah Named Contracts n/a
al-Uqud al-Tab'iyyah Subordinate Contracts n/a
al-Uqud ghayr al-Musammah Unnamed Contract n/a
al-wa'd bi al-bai'   Promise to sell
al-wa'd bi al-syira'   Promise to buy
Al-Wakalah Agency Literally: to depend upon someone else in one’s affairs; to guard, take care of guarantee
Al-Wakalah al-'ammah General Agency n/a
Al-wakalah al-khassah Limited Agency n/a
Al-wakalah al-muqayyadah Restricted Agency n/a
Al-wakalah al-mutlaqah Unrestricted Agency n/a
Al-wakil al-musakhar Agency by Default Literally: the root meaning of taskhir is to humiliate and demean. A derived meaning is to put someone to work without pay.
Al-waqf al-ahli Private Endowment n/a
Al-waqf al-khayri Charitable Endowment n/a
Amal Work Literally: vocation, action and authority; in Arabic it includes acts of the heart as well as those of the limbs. It is used for what is done with thought and deliberation.
Amanah Trust Literally: a verbal noun/infinitive meaning: to feel secure and serene. It was then used to refer to something made secure.
Amanah & Wadi'ah Trust & Deposit Trust & Deposit
Aqar Real Estate all fixed property, such as land, a house, a country estate.
Aqd Contract Literally: ‘aqada means to tightly bind, knot, combine, make stable and permanent.
Aqd al-mawquf & Aqd Mukhayyar fihi Suspended & Optional contracts n/a
Aqd al-Mu'allaq & Aqd al-Mudaf Contingent & Prospective Contracts n/a
Aqd Fasid & Aqd mukhayyar fihi Invalid contract & contract by option of cancellation n/a
Araya pl. of ‘ariyyah Literally: ‘ariyyah is what is separated by itself, and what is separated from sale.
Araya & Hibat Loan for Use & Gifts n/a
arbun   Down payment
Ard Commodity Literally: a baggage or commercial good. Everything is an ‘ard except money, which is called ‘ayn.
Ariyah & Wadi'ah Loan & Deposit n/a
Ata' Grant Literally: giving; or what is given.
Awarid al-ahliyyah Legal Competence Impediments Literally: ‘awarid (pl. of ‘arid or ‘aridah): the opposite of the basic situation and what is established; ahliyah: suitability and sufficiency for a given matter.
Awl Adjustment in Inherited Shares Literally: increase and rise.
Ayb Defect Literally: a change that affects the basic nature and quality of something.
Ayn Corporeal Literally: wealth that is ready and at hand, cash and gold in general.
Ba'i the seller -The Seller
Badal Compensation Literally: a substitute of one thing for another.
bai' 'inah   1. contract of sale and purchase of an asset whereby the seller sells to buyer in cash and subsequently buys back the asset at a marked up deferred price. 2. contract of sale and purchase of an asset whereby the seller sells to buyer at a deferred price and subsequently buys back at a lower cash price.
bai' al-kali bi al-kali'   Sale of debt for a debt
bai' al-murabahah li al-amir bi al-syira'   Murabahah to the purchase orderer
Bai' bithaman ajil   A contract of sale and purchase of an asset in which the payment of price is preferred and paid in instalment within an agreed period of time. The selling price includes profit.
Bai' murawadhah   Refer bai' mu'athah
Bai' mu`athahBai' mu'athah   A contract of sale and purchase of an asset in which the contracting parties agreed on the exchange of the asset and the price without verbal or written ijab and qabul.
bai' salam   Salam means a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered later on. The seller undertakes to supply some specific goods to the buyer at a future date in exchange of an advance price fully paid at the time of contract
bai' wafa'   A conditional contract of sale and purchase on an asset in which the buyer would return the asset to the seller if the seller refund the price to the buyer.
Bakhs Shortchanging Literally: to undervalue something unjustly. Allah, the Exalted, says: ﴿وَلاَ تَبْخَسُواْ النَّاسَ أَشْيَاءهُمْ﴾ “And do not withhold things justly due to people” Surah al-A’raf (7):85, Surah Yunus (11):85, and Surah al-Shu’ara’ (26):183. Ibn al-’Arabi said the word means to cheat by finding fault or under- or overvaluing or by increasing or decreasing the measure.
Bay' 'ala bay' al-ghayr Third Party Intervention in Sale Negotiations n/a
Bay' al-'araya An Exceptional Contract for Barter in Dates Literally: 'araya is the plural of the Arabic word 'uryah, which refers to a palm tree whose dates are given to a needy person for a fixed period of time.
Bay' al-bara' As-Is Sale Literally: al-bara' means to get out of something or leave it.
Bay' al-dayn bil dayn Sale of Debt for Debt Literally: dayn is any future liability. A debt is an obligation or liability incurred by a person as a result of an exchange contract or loan or by causing damage to the property of others property whether in the form of money or something else.
Bay' al-Fuduli & Hibat al-Fuduli Sale by an unauthorized agent and Gift n/a
Bay' al-hadir lil badi The Sale of a City-Dweller on Behalf of a Bedouin Literally: al-hadir is a resident of a city or a village, while al-badi (Bedouin) is a desert dweller.
Bay' al-hasah Random Sale Literally: al-hasah means a pebble.
Bay' al-ikhtiyar Optional Sale Literally: al-ikhtiyar means selecting or choosing.
Bay' al-istighlal Sale of Usufruct Literally: al-istighlal: taking advantage of something e.g., its yield. Yield (al-ghallah) is the income from crops, fruit, milk, proceeds of leasing and offspring of livestock.
Bay' al-istijrar Supply Sale Literally: al-istijrar means to pull.
Bay' al-khiyar Sale with Option Literally: khiyar (option) is the noun derived from ikhtiyar (the act of choosing); e.g., the option of proceeding with a sale or withdrawing from it.
Bay' al-mu'amalah Ostensible Sale n/a
Bay' al-mudtarr Sale under Duress Literally: udturra means compelled.
Bay' al-murasalah Sale by Correspondence Literally: correspondence sale.
Bay' al-muwasafah Sale According to Attributes Literally: wasf is a description.
Bay' al-naqd Cash Sale Literally: naqada al-darahim means to give cash, intaqada al-darahim means to receive it.
Bay' al-nasi'ah Deferred-Payment Sale Literally: al-nasi' and al-nasi'ah both refer to deferral or postponement.
Bay' al-raja' Sale with Repurchase Option Exercisable during a Fixed Period Literally: al-raja' means hope and expectation; the opposite of despair.
Bay' al-talji'ah Pre-emptive Sale Literally: talji'ah is derived from ilja', to compel.
Bay' al-wadi'ah Sale at a Loss Literally: al-wadi'ah means decrease and diminishment.
Bay' al-wafa' Redemption Sale Literally: loyalty (al-wafa') is the antonym of treachery.
Bay' al-wafa' & Bay' al-talji'ah Redemption Sale & Pre-emptive Sale n/a
Bay' bil-raqam Code/ Catalogue sale Literally: al-raqam means a mark, written or otherwise, placed on something in orderto distinguish it from other things.
Bay' bil-sifah Sale by Description Also called al-bay' 'ala al-sifah. Literally: al-sifah means characteristic or quality.
Bay' bil-ta'ati Hand-to-Hand/Face -to -face Sale Literally: ta'ati means to take.
Bay' bil-unmudhaj Sale by Sample Literally: unmudhaj or namudhaj is a representative part of something or an illustrative/ demonstration model.
Bay' dirab al-jamal Breeding Contract Literally: dirab al-jamal means camel sperm.
Bay'& Tijarah Sale & Trade n/a
Bay', Hibbah & Wasiyah Sale, Gift & Testament n/a
Bayt al-Mal Public Treasury Literally: bayt: originally, the place humans stay; later, any place in which something is kept came to be called its bayt.
Bayya' Broker Literally: an intensive form of ba'i' (seller) which means that the person sells frequently and repeatedly.
Bida'ah Merchandise Literally: wealth used for trade; derived from bada'a: to cut; it is as if the merchantdetached a portion of his wealth for purposes of trade.
Buyu' al-ajal Time-Specific Sale Literally: ajal means future periods.
Da' wa ta'ajjal Taking Less for Hastening n/a
Dakhl Income Literally: revenue that a person gains from his wealth; for example, what he gains from his real estate or business. The opposite of dakhl is kharj: outflow of funds, expenditure. The plural of dakhl is dukhul or madakhil.
Daman Guarantee Literally: daman: to put something into something that contains it. Standing surety is derived from this meaning because the guarantor encompasses the obligor’s liability and adds it to his own.
Daman al-'aqd Guarantee of Contract n/a
Daman al-'Aqd & daman al-Itilaf Guarantee of contract & guarantee of destruction n/a
Daman al-'uhdah Guarantee of Contractual Obligation Linguistically: ‘uhdah is the document used to record transactions for referral in case of confusion.
Daman al-a'yan Asset Insurance n/a
Daman al-darak Money-Back Guarantee Literally: dark or darak: responsibility or liability after the fact.
Daman al-istihqaq Guarantee of Entitlement n/a
Daman al-itlaf Liability for Damage n/a
Daman al-suq Market Assurance n/a
Daman al-talab Location Guarantee n/a
Daman al-wajh Guarantee of Appearance n/a
Daman al-yad Liability for Damage to Property in One’s Possession Literally: liability of the hand.
Darar Damage, harm The Arabic word means harm as opposed to what is beneficial and it means to harm someone.
Daribah Tax n/a
Darurah Necessity n/a
Dayn Debt Literally: dayn is any future liability on a person, without it being in any particularform, money or something else.
Dayn & Qard Debt & Loan n/a
Dayn al-'abd Human Debt n/a
Dayn al-Mustaqill & Dayn Mushtarak Independent & jointly owned debts n/a
Dayn Allah The Debt Due to Allah n/a
dhaman   A contract of guarantee in which one party guarantees the fulfillment of a claim or performance of an obligation which is due to another party in a case of default. Synonim: kafalah.
Dhari'ah Pretext Literally: the Arabic word refers to ‘means’ and cause.
Dhimmah liability Literally: the Arabic word means agreement and pact between free non -Muslims under Muslim rule: regarded as under an agreement or pact with the Muslim government in respect of their rights and duties.
dho' wa ta'ajjal   An arrangement in which the creditor reduces the amount of debt due to early settlement of debt by the debtor.
Di'f Multiply Lexically and technically the term means to double a thing by multiplication; the double of one is two and of two is four etc.
Dilalah Brokerage Literally: the Arabic word means an intermediary arrangement between a buyer and a seller.
Fa'idah Interest Literally: benefit taken, whether of knowledge or wealth.
Fahish Exorbitant Literally: very ugly deeds or statements, and whatever exceeds the limits.
Faqir Destitute Literally: poverty (faqr) is a cleft in something; and a faqir is a person with a broken vertebra.
Fard Obligation Literally: obligation, imposition, estimation and decisiveness.
Fasad Invalidity Literally: corruption.
Faskh Revocation Literally: removal, elimination, invalidation, and separation.
Faskh al-dayn fi al-dayn Debt revocation n/a
fiqh muamalat   Islamic law of contract
Fuduli Interloper Literally: one who busies himself with things that are none of his business.
Fulus Pennies Literally: pl. of fils, the lowest value of coin.
Ghala' Price Escalation Literally: rising and exceeding the limits in anything.
Ghaliq al-rahn or ghalaq al-rahn Mortgage Closure Literally: ghalaq is to lock, its root meaning is blockage and shutting; rahn is permanence and continuity.
Ghallah Yield Literally: the return from land and the like.
Gharamah Fine Literally: what must be paid.
Gharar Deception Literally: risk; its original meaning is reduction; it is what is pleasant on the surface but unpleasant underneath.
Gharar & Jahalah Uncertainty & Ignorance n/a
Gharim Creditor/Debtor Literally: the term is used for both the one who owes a debt and the one to whom it is owed.
ghasb   Forfeiture
ghayah   Aim or goal
Ghina Affluence Literally: wealth sufficient for needs and comfort.
Ghish Deception Literally: deceit; when one does not give sincere advice and makes fair-seeming to someone what is not to their benefit, or to show other than what was really intended.
Ghulul Misappropriation Literally: breach of trust, and taking something secretly.
Ghurm Loss Literally: debt; loss, to pay what is required.
Ha'un wa ha' Spot Possession n/a
Habs Detention Literally: prevention and withholding of something; the opposite of release (takhliyah) and setting free (itlaq).
Hadiyyah present Literally: what is given to a person one loves.
Hajah & Darurah Necessity & Compulsion n/a
Hajah asliyyah Basic Need Literally: hajah: requirement; also anything whose acquisition is intended, such as goods and usufruct. It is derived from ihtiyaj: pressing requirement. Its plurals are hajat and hawa'ij. It appears in the statement of Allah, the Exalted: “…and that you may satisfy by their means a need that is in your breasts” Surah al- Ghafir (40):80.
Hajr Interdiction Literally: to prevent, without qualification, e.g., to prevent someone from acting.
Halak Destruction Destruction (halak) p304
halal   Permissible
Hamalah mutaraqqabah Anticipated Undertaking Literally: taraqqub: expectation and anticipation; to look to the time of something’s
hamish jiddiyyah   Security deposit; certain amount of money will be taken from a party, who places an order to purchase, as a security for his promise.
Haraj Hardship Literally: narrowness and closeness; la haraj: no objection. Allah, the Exalted said: ﴿مَا يُرِيدُ ا لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ﴾ “Allah does not wish to place you in difficulty” Surah al-Ma’idah (5):6. Haraj means sin. The link in meaning is that sin causes constriction for the sinner.
Haraj & Darurah Discomfiture & Compulsion n/a
Haraj & Mashaqqah Severity & Hardship n/a
haram lighoirih   Forbidden due to a factor
haram lizatihi   Inherently forbidden
Hatitah Discount Literally: from hatta: to lower or put down; it can be physical, like putting down baggage, or abstract, as in lowering a price.
Hawalah Debt Transfer Literally: derived from tahwil: to shift something from one place to another; thereflexive form, tahawwala, means to move oneself from one place to another.
Hawalah & Ibra' Assignment of Debt & Acquittal from debt n/a
Hawalah muqayyadah Conditional Debt Transfer n/a
Hawalah mutlaqah Unconditional Debt Transfer n/a
Hazz Share Literally: lot or share (pl.: huzuz). In the Qur’an, the ignorant said about Qarun: ﴿إنه لذو حظ عظيم﴾ “Indeed, he is one of great fortune” Surah al-Qasas (28):79
hibah   An act of transfering of ownership of an asset or usufruct without an exchange of counter value during the lifetime of the transferor
hibah al-'umra   Hibah which is contingent to the lifetime of either the one who makes the gift or the receipient.
hibah al-ruqba   A conditional hibah stipulated by the one who makes the gift, where the receipient will own the gift upon the death of the former
hibah manfaat   Refer `ariyah
Hibbah Gift Literally: to give something to another without compensation, whether the thing is wealth or not.
Hibbat al-thawab Gift for Consideration n/a
Hifz Preservation Literally: to maintain, care for, and safeguard from danger; hifz al-'ahd, keepinga promise; hifz al-mal: preserving wealth from things that threaten it with destruction.
Hifz al-mal Preservation of Wealth n/a
Hilah Stratagem Literally: cleverness and astuteness in handling and discharging matters by secretmethods. The plural is hiyal. One who uses a stratagem is called muhtal.
Hilah & Dhari'ah Stratagem & Pretext or Legal Devices n/a
Himayah Protection Literally: to protect from evil and harm. It is said that a place is under someone’s himayah if he defends it so that no one can approach it.
Hirz Safe Place for Property Literally: a place to keep something safe; a related word is taharraza: to be wary, i.e.,to safeguard oneself from something.
Hirz al-mithl Compatible Safe Place for Property n/a
Hissah sha'i'ah Diffused Share Literally: hissah (pl. hisas): a share, what one deserves of a thing; sha'i'ah: diffused,spread out; khabar sha'i'ah: a widespread piece of news.
Hiyazah Possession Literally: to collect and gather.
Hukm al-'aqd Legal Implication of Contract n/a
Hulul To Be Immediately Due Literally: among the various meanings of hulul: a person’s arrival and descent at a specific place and, thus, it means to occupy a location. The place occupied is known as the mahall. It is used figuratively for maturity of a debt; i.e., its payment date has arrived.
Huquq al-'aqd Contractual Rights n/a
I'dam Impoverishment Literally: derived from ‘adam: lack of something; it is commonly used for a lack of wealth; a’dama: to lose wealth; become poor.
I'dam, I'sar & Iflas Poverty, Insolvency & Bankruptcy n/a
I'sar Financial Difficulty Literally: from ‘usr: hardship and discomfort. A mu’sir is a person in financial hardship.
I'ta' Granting Literally: i’ta’ refers to giving and taking. Something given is called ‘ata’ or ‘atiyyah. The common use of i’ta’ is to give a gift.
I'timan Trust Literally: trust; confidence in someone.
Ibahah Permission Literally: the opposite of prohibition; unqualified permission to do or not to do. Inusul al-fiqh, it is a statement from the Lawgiver concerning the acts of those morally responsible, giving them a choice.
Ibahah & Hill Neutral Permissibility & Lawfulness n/a
Ibahah & Takhyir Permissibility & Free Will n/a
Ibahah & Tamlik Permissibility & Alienation of Property n/a
Ibda' Merchandise, offering for sale Literally: from bad': part of something; a trader's merchandise (bida'ah) is part of his property; tabdi': to divide something into parts; badi': an importer of goods.
Ibda' & Qirad Merchandise & Profit-Sharing n/a
Ibra' Discharge Literally: from bara'ah: to be free, exonerated, dissociated from.
Ibra' 'amm General Discharge n/a
Ibra' khass Special Discharge n/a
Ibtal Voiding Literally: to remove something; to rule that something is void.
Ibtida' al-dayn bi al-dayn Simultaneous Debt-for-Debt Sale n/a
Iddikhar Savings Literally: to preserve, protect and prepare something for the time of need.
Iddikhar & Ihtikar Saving & Hoarding n/a
Idhn Permission Literally: originally: to know; to inform. Allah, the Exalted, says: “Be informed (fa’dhan) of a war from Allah and His Messenger.” It is more widely used to mean: to grant permission Ibn al-Kamal said, “Permission means to release someone from legal interdiction and give them free disposal.
Idhn & Ijazah Permission & Ratification n/a
Idrak To Reach Literally: something reaches something else; adrakat al-thimar: the fruits reached maturity; i.e., ripened and adraka al-thaman al-mushtari, i.e. the price has become obligatory on the buyer.
Idtirar Pressing Need Literally: to be in severe need of something.
Iflas Bankruptcy Literally: that a person runs short of money; it can also be used for running out of money (and wealth) totally.
Ifqar Lend an Animal for Riding Literally: to lend a camel to ride or transport cargo. It is derived from faqar: spine.
Ihraz Safekeeping Literally: to gather, to preserve and to prevent. A related term is hirz: a place ofsafekeeping for something.
Ihraz & Hiyazah Preservation & Possession n/a
Ihtikar Monopoly Literally: to hoard and monopolize something.
Ihtiyaj Need Literally: ihtiyaj and hajah both refer to urgent need and necessity, as in the statement of Allah, the Exalted: “…that you may, through them, attain to any need in your hearts…” Surah al-Ghafir (40): 80.
Ihtiyal Legal Stratagem Literally: ihtiyal: to employ clever means to secure benefit and prevent harm.
Ijab & Wujub Obligation & Obligatory n/a
ijarah Lease Literally: the reward given for service rendered
Ijarah & Bay' Lease & Sale n/a
Ijarah & I'arah Lease & Loan for Temporary Use n/a
Ijarah & Istisna' Lease & Manufacturing n/a
Ijarah & Ja'alah A lease & Job Wages n/a
Ijarah & Kira' Lease & Rent n/a
Ijarah & Musaqah Lease & Contract for Watering Trees n/a
Ijarah & Muzar'ah Lease & Sharecropping n/a
Ijarah & Sukhrah Lease & Unpaid Labour n/a
Ijarah lazimah Binding Lease n/a
Ijarah mu'allaqah Contingent Lease n/a
Ijarah mudafah A Lease Effective at a Future Date n/a
Ijarah munajjazah Immediately Effective Lease Literally: from injaz: acceleration.
Ijarah tawilah Long-Term Lease n/a
ijarah thumma al-bai'   A contract of lease which subsequently followed by a sale contract.
Ijarat al-dhimmah Lease of Liability n/a
ijmak   Consensus of Islamic scholars and jurist
ijtihad   Reasoning by qualified Shariah scholars to obtain Shariah rulings from the sources of Shariah
Ijza' Satisfaction Literally: contentment, satisfaction with something.
Ikhbal Lending to Ride Literally: to lend camels or sheep for the use of their hair, wool, milk and other benefits. It is frequently used to mean lending a camel to ride or a horse to use in jihad. Some said: a man divides his camel herd into two halves, with one half each year being devoted to reproduction, as is done with farmland.
Ikhlaf Breach of Promise Literally: derived from khalafa: to change, ikhlaf of a promise is failure to fulfill it. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “The signs of a hypocrite are three: when he talks he lies, when he makes a promise he breaks it, and whenever he is entrusted he betrays.”
Ikhtilas Embezzlement Literally: to quickly take away others’ property when they are unaware.
Ikhtilas & Sariqah Embezzlement & Theft n/a
ikhtisas Exclusive Right Literally: means to take exclusive possession of something.
Ikhtiyar Choice Literally: inclination, preference and selection. It is said that you choose something when you incline to it, prefer it and select it.
Ikhtiyar & khiyar Choice & Option n/a
Ikhtiyar & Rida Choice & Consent n/a
Ikrah Coercion Literally: to force someone to do something.
Ilja' Coercion Literally: to compel or force.
Ilja', Idtirar & Ikrah Duress, Compulsion & Coercion n/a
illah   Legal effective cause
Iltizam Commitment Literally: derived from lazima: to constantly adhere to something. Lazimahu mal means that a person has a financial obligation.
Iltizam & Luzum Obligation & Binding n/a
Iltizam al-ma'ruf A Pledge to Do Good n/a
Ilzam & Iltizam Imposition & Obligation n/a
Imda' Ratification Literally: to endorse and make enforceable.
Imta' To Give a Benefit Literally: to take benefit from something for a period; also, to grant someone usufruct.
Imtiyaz Concession Literally: Form VIII derivation of maza: to separate one thing from another; to distinguish one thing from another. Imtaza: to be distinguished or to distinguish oneself. Allah, the Exalted, said: ﴿وَامْتَازُوا الْيَوْمَ أَ اُّهيَ ا جْملُْرِمُونَ﴾ “O you in sin! Get apart (imtazu) this Day!” Surah Ya Sin (36):59.
In'iqad Conclusion Literally: derived from ‘aqada: to tie a knot. It is used abstractly to indicate that something is complete and its “loose ends” are “tied up”.
Inabah Deputation Literally: 1) to return; 2) to delegate someone to act as one’s representative; na’ib: a representative or proxy.
Inah Sale and Repurchase Literally: an option to something, delayed payment and loan.
Infadh Execution Literally: Form IV derivation of nafadha: to pass from one thing to another. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Treating one’s parents well is by asking forgiveness for them and carrying out (infadh) their instructions”, i.e. to execute their bequests. It is also used to mean the sending, of a letter, for instance, or a messenger.
Infaq Expenditure Literally: from nufuq: to be used up, run out. When used with a horse, for instance, it refers to its death; when used with money it means it has been spent. Anfaqa: to spend.
Infisakh Contract Dissolution Literally: Form VII derivation of fasakha: to annul; infasakha: to be annulled.
Infisakh & Intiha' Cancellation & Expiration n/a
Inqita' Expiration Literally: inavailability; Form VII derivation of qata’a: to cut, to separate a part from the whole; i.e., it is the effect of cutting off a flow, etc.
Insaf Equity Literally: fairness and giving the other party his right. The term is used because it means that the fair person treats the other party as he treats himself with regard to a right, so that each of them has half (nisf) of it.
Insaf & 'Adl Equality & Justice n/a
Intaj Production Literally: antajat al-naqah: a she-camel’s pregnancy has become clear and delivery is imminent.
Intifa' Utilization Literally: to take benefit (naf’) from something. manfa’ah: usufruct.
Intisaf To Seek One’s Right Literally: intasafah: to seek justice (nasafah) or to seek one’s right from another. Also, to reach the halfway point; derived from nisf (half).
Inzal Increment Literally: inzal: to send down; to move something from a high place to a low one. Nuzul, with reference to a right, means to relinquish it. Nuzl: increment or increase resulting from a thing; the plural is anzal.
Inzar Respite Literally: to delay and give respite. Allah, the Exalted, said:“Grant him time till it is easy for him to repay” Surah al-Baqarah (2):280.
Inzar & Imhal Waiting & Negligent n/a
Iqalah Cancellation Literally: to remove and eliminate. In contracts, it means to revoke the contract.
Iqta' Land Grant Literally: iqtata’a: to give something to someone, so he becomes its owner or has the right to its usufruct. The thing that is given is called qati’ah.
Iqta' and Ihya' al-Mawat Feudal system and Cultivation of virgin land n/a
Iqtida' Requirement Literally: iqtada, also taqada: to ask the debtor to pay his debts; to take one’s right from someone. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “May Allah have mercy on a person for being lenient when he sells, buys and asks his right.”
Iqtina' Acquisition Literally: to possess something for use not for sale or trade. An item possessed with this intention is called qunyah.
Iqtisad Economy Literally: from qasd: moderation and prudence; to do something with neither excess nor negligence; also, accumulation.
Iqtiyat Sustenance Literally: to consume food (qut) that sustains the human body.
Ir Pack Animals Literally: camels that carry provisions.
Iradah Will Literally: intention, seeking and choice. Al-Jurjani defined it as “inclination toward something because it is believed to be beneficial.”
Iradah munfaridah Unilateral Intention n/a
Irsad & Hukr Covered fund & Monopoly n/a
Irtifaq Facilities/Amenities Literally: derived from rifq (mildness): to agree and to approach without violence; irtafaqa: to lean against something to take rest. Anything which provides comfort or convenience is a mirfaq (pl. marafiq). Allah, the Exalted, said: “Your Lord will spread for you of His mercy and will prepare for you comfort in your plight.” Surah al-Kahf (18):16.
Ishrak Taking on a Partner Literally: to take a partner. Allah, the Exalted, says: ﴿وَأَ كْرشِْهُ أَمْرِي﴾ “And make him share my task.” Surah Ta Ha (20):32 i.e., make him a partner with me in this matter.
Islah Restoration Literally:the Arabic word means reconciliation between people removal alienation between them.
Isqat Relinquishment of a Right Literally: to throw or cast something; isqat al-janin (literally: to cast the fetus) refers to abortion. Casting may be used in a non-physical sense, as in giving up one’s right. One can also say an obligation drops away (usqita) from someone.
Isqatat Contracts of Relinquishment n/a
Isti'man Trust Literally: to seek security.
Istibdal Substitution Literally: to put something in place of something else.
Istidanah Indebtedness Literally: to seek a debt.
Istifa' Fulfillment Literally: wafa’: completion; kaylun wafin: full measure. istifa’: to seek completion; also, to seek one’s right in full.
Istighlal Yield Literally: to seek yield from an asset; e.g. the harvest of a farm or rental of a house. In this sense it is synonymous with investment.
Istiham Drawing Lots Literally: istahama: to cast lots; sahm: a share. Allah, the Exalted, said: ﴿فَسَاهَمَ فَكَانَ مِنَ ا دْملُْحَضِينَ﴾ “He [agreed to] cast lots and was of those rejected” Surat al-Saffat (37): 141.
Istihlak Consumption Literally: istihlak has two meaning: 1) exposure to ruin. 2) to finish something off.
Istihlak & Itlaf Consumption & Damage n/a
istihqaq Entitlement Literally: to be deserving of a right.
istihsan   Juristic preferences, disregarding a ruling backed by a dalil (proof) and resort to another ruling that is sounder
Istijrar & Ta'ati Supply Sale & Nonverbal Sale n/a
Istila' Occupancy Literally: to take or seize control of something.
Istila' & Ghasb Appropriation & Usurpation n/a
Istila' & Ihraz Appropriation & Preservation n/a
Istila', Hiyazah & Qabd Appropriation, Possession & Taking Possession n/a
Istinad Support Literally: to gather things in order to lean against them.
istinbat al-ahkam   Derivation of Shariah rulings from the main sources of Shariah.
Istiqalah Resignation Literally: to request cancellation; iqalah of a sale means to cancel the contract.
istiqra'   Meticulous and comprehensive reading and understanding of an issue in order to derive Shariah rulings
istiqrar ta'amul   Stability of trade.
Istirdad Restitution Literally: to ask for something back.
istishab   Maintaining the continuity of an established legal rule in the absence of any evidence showing otherwise.
istisna   An order sale used mainly in financing assets that are under construction
Istisna' Manufacturing Contract Literally: a request to have something manufactured.
Istithmar Investment Literally: to seek fruit (thamarah); thamarah is used metaphorically to refer to children and earned wealth; thammara: to increase wealth.
Itawah Taxes Literally: itawah encompasses bribery, land tax (kharaj) and taxes in general. Some said: whatever is taken from its owners without their consent.
Itlaf To Damage Literally: talaf: damage to or destruction of something; itlaf: to cause damage.
Itlaf & Talaf Destruction and Damage n/a
Itlaf bi al-mubasharah Direct Damage n/a
Itlaf bi al-tasabbub Indirect Damage n/a
Itlaq Release Literally: to launch or release; to impose no restrictions or qualifications.
Itlaqat Contracts of Authorization n/a
Ittihad al-majlis Unity of Contract Session Literally: majlis: a place to sit; it can be used metaphorically to refer to people who sit together.
Iwad Compensation Literally: compensation.
Ja'ihah Calamity Literally: a great disaster afflicting wealth; for instance frost or excessive heat that destroys a fruit crop. Calamities are divided into two types: 1) acts of God in which humans play no role; 2) those caused by humans, such as the ravages of an invading army. The Prophet (peace be upon him) gave orders for wad’ al-ja’ihah. That means that zakah should not be taken from the yield of a crop beset by a calamity. It also means that the seller should not take compensation from the buyer for what gets destroyed by a calamity. In one narration he said, “If you were to sell fruit to your brother and it is then beset by a calamity, it is not lawful for you to take anything from him. How can you take the right of your brother without justification?” Jurists agree that both zakah and the counter-value are to be waived for a fruit crop beset by a natural disaster. Malikis ruled that if it is widely known about any type of disaster that it cannot be averted, whether it is natural or caused by humans, the same law applies.
Ja'izah Prize Literally and Technically: something given as compensation, or it may be given to honor someone, such as a guest. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Honor (ajizu) delegations as I have done.” The basic rule for rewards is that they are permissible unless external illegal factors are mixed with them, such as usury, uncertainty or gambling. Prizes provided by a third party to competitors in a contest are legal, but if the competitors themselves contribute to a prize that one of them will win, this is considered gambling and is prohibited.
Ja'izah, Mukafa'ah & Ujrah Reward, Bonus & Wage n/a
Jahalah Ignorance Literally: lack of knowledge about something.
Jawaz al-'aqd Contract Permissibility Literally: jawaz is acceptance and validity. That a contract is permitted (ja'iz) meansit has been executed and concluded correctly.
Ji'alah Wage Contract Literally: compensation given for a service
Jibayah Tax Collection Literally: to collect and gather; it can be used for collecting zakah.
Jidah Affluence Literally: derived from wujud: literally, existence, but also, wealth; wajid: wealthy.
Jihat al-waqf Endowment Recipient n/a
Ju'l Remuneration for a Task Literally: compensation for a given service.
Juhud Denial Literally: to deny what one knows to be true. Allah, the Exalted, said: ﴿وَجَحَدُوا اِهبَ وَاسْتَيْقَنَتْهَا أَنفُسُهُمْ﴾ “And they rejected [those signs] in iniquity and arrogance, though their souls acknowledged them” Surah al-Naml (27):14. A denier is called jahid, while the matter being denied is majhud.
jumhur fukaha   Majority of scholars
Juzaf Sale of Unmeasured Foodstuff Literally: to take a lot of something; originally, a Persian word; jazf: something of unknown weight or volume.
Ka'l Debt Swap n/a
Kadik Tenant’s Improvements to Rental Property n/a
Kafaf Contentment Literally: from kaff to refrain; so named because one refrains from asking people.
kafalah   Refer dhaman
kafalah bi al-ayn   A guarantee to provide or deliver a tangible property which is the subject matter of a contract. Synonim; kafalah bi al-taslim
kafalah bi al-darak   A guarantee for an object to be free from any claim. It is meant to ensure that the ownership of the object is free from any encumbrances in order to allow a transfer of the object. Should there is a claim, the guarantor will compensate for any loss incurred.
kafalah bi al-dayn   A guarantee to settle a debt owed by a person.
kafalah bi al-mal   Commercial or financial guarantee
kafalah bi al-nafs   Guarantee for the presence of a person
kafalah bi al-taslim   Refer kafalah bi al-'ayn
Kafalat al-'ayn al-madmunah Warrant of Guaranteed Material Property n/a
Kafalat al-dayn Debt Guaranty Literally: kafalah means to stand surety.
Kambiyalah Bill Literally: derived from the Italian word meaning ‘substitute’.
Kasad Depressed Market Literally: decay; lack of a market.
Kasb Earning Literally: to gather and acquire.
Kasb khabith Illicit Earning Literally: khabith is the opposite of wholesome.
Khalit Partner Literally: a mixture of two or more things; a drink made by soaking dates and raisinsin water; a neighbor; a partner. A partner is called khalit because he mixes his wealthwith that of another.
Khasarah Loss Literally: diminishment or loss, as in loss of a business or a decline in capital or in an account balance.
Khilabah Dupery Literally: cheating. The Prophet (peace be upon him) instructed a man who was always being duped to say, “There should not be any attempt to deceive”.
Khiyanah Breach of Trust Literally: to not fulfill one’s word or covenant, in part or in whole.
Khiyanah & Ghish Betrayal & Fraud n/a
Khiyar Option Literally: khiyar (option) is the noun derived from ikhtiyar (the act of choosing); in this case, choosing whether to conclude the sale contract or cancel it.
Khiyar al-'ayb Defect Option Literally: 'ayb is a defect, any attribute that is not normally part of the goods.
Khiyar al-kashf Discovery Option Literally: kashf means to expose something that had been hidden or covered.
Khiyar al-majlis The Option of Withdrawal before Parting Literally: al-majlis is any place of sitting; what is meant here is the place where thecontract agreement is reached.
Khiyar al-naqd Delayed-Price Payment' Option Literally: naqd means give and take.
Khiyar al-ru'yah Inspection Option n/a
Khiyar al-shart Conditional Option Literally: shart refers to an obligation imposed or a commitment undertaken by means of a stipulation in a sale contract and the like.
Khiyar fawat al-wasf al-marghub ‘Missing Quality' Option n/a
Khulu Vacancy Literally: emptiness, as in an empty place.
Kira' Rental Literally: the rental fee, and the lease itself.
Layy Debt Procrastrination Literally: procrastination, postponement, holding back.
Luqatah Lost and Found Literally: something picked up from the ground.
Luzum al-'aqd Binding Contract Literally: luzum means stability and permanence.
Ma'din Mine Literally: originally, a place where people reside; also the place of origin or beginning of something.
Ma'dum Nonexistent Literally: to be missing.
Ma'juz al-taslim Undeliverable Literally: ‘ajaza: to be weak or incapable.
Ma'lum Known Literally: known.
Mabi' The Subject Matter n/a
madin mumatil   A debtor who procrastinates the settlement of his debt.
Madmun bi ghayrihi Guaranteed with something else n/a
Madmun bi nafsihi Guaranteed by Itself n/a
mahal al-khilaf   Point of disagreement
Mahall al-'aqd The Subject matter of the Contract Literally: mahall indicates the location or time of an act.
Mahdar Record of Proceeding Literally: attendance; also, a certificate.
Majhul Unknown Literally: jahl is the opposite of knowledge; and majhul is the opposite of known.
Mal Wealth Literally: anything a person possesses.
Mal istihlaki & Mal al-isti'mali Consumable & utilitarian wealth n/a
Mal, Mutamawwal & Mutaqawwim Money, Financed item & Quatified value n/a
Mala'ah Solvency Literally: mala’ah: wealth; mali’: wealthy.
Mamluk Owned n/a
Manfa'ah Usufruct Literally: benefit.
Manqul Moveable Literally: from naql: to move something from one place to another.
maqasid syar'iyyah   Objectives of Shariah of a legal rule which is meant to enjoin benefits for the mankind
Mashaqqah Hardship Literally: strain, discomfort, adversity, inconvenience.
Mashghul Occupied Occupied
Maslahah Benefit; Interest Literally: derived from salah (goodness), the opposite of corruption and disorder. The plural is masalih.
Maslahah 'ammah Public Interest n/a
Maslahah khassah Private Interest n/a
Masrif Bank n/a
Matl Procrastination Literally: procrastination and resistance in paying a debt or fulfilling a promise.
Milk Ownership Literally: possession of something and the ability to dispose of it independently.
Milk ghayr mustaqirr Ownership That Is Not Firmly Established n/a
Milk mustaqirr Firmly Established Ownership n/a
Milk mutlaq Absolute Ownership n/a
Milk naqis Incomplete Ownership n/a
Milk tamm Complete Ownership n/a
Minhah Loan of an Asset and Gift of Its Yield Literally: gift.
Mithl Equivalent Literally: to treat equally, resemblance.
Mithli Comparable Literally: the relative adjective derived from mithl.
Mu'ajjir Lessor n/a
Mu'akarah Sharecropping Literally: Form III derivation of akara: to plow or till land.
Mu'atah Nonverbal Sale Literally: to hand over.
Mu'awadah Compensation/Countervalue Literally: Form III derivation of ‘iwad: compensation.
Mu'ayarah Gauging Literally: comparison and measure.
Mu'rid Promiscuous Borrower Literally: 1) one who approaches people for loans and takes from anyone willing to loan to him. 2) one who takes loans without bothering about paying them back or any other consequences.
muamalat maliyyah   Financial transactions
Mubadalah Swap Literally: to expend something and take something in compensation for it.
Mubah Neutrally Lawful Literally: ibahah: to be spacious, to become manifest, to declare.
Mudarabah Silent-Partnership Enterprise Literally: Form III derivation of daraba; one of its meanings is to travel across the earth.
Mudd 'ujwah Composite Barter of Ribawi Goods Literally: a mudd is a volume measure equivalent to what fills a person’s two cupped hands held side by side. It is approximately equivalent to ¼ of a sa’ (2.75 liters), which would make a mudd about 0.7 liters. ‘Ujwah is a prized variety of dates.
mudharabah   A partnership in profit whereby one party provides capital (rabb al mal) and the other party provide labour (mudharib)
mudharib   An entrepreneur
Mufasalah Clearance Literally: to distinguish one thing from another.
Mugharasah Tree-Cultivation Joint Enterprise Literally: Form III derivation of gharasa: to plant.
Muhabah Deference in a Transaction Literally: muhabah:deference or partiality;hibwah: a gift.
Muhaqalah Apportionment Literally: muhaqalah is a Form III derivation of haql, which is a plant that begins to branch but whose main stalk has not yet thickened. Some said it is derived from haql, meaning a cultivated field.
Muhassah Apportionment Literally: hissah is a share or portion of food, drink, land, etc. The plural is hisas.The verb is used with reference to creditors of a bankrupt person when they divide hisproperty among themselves.
Muhassah & Muqasamah Share out & Apportion n/a
Muhaya'ah Time- and Space-Sharing Literally: agreement, mutual accommodation.
mujtahid   A person who conducts ijtihad
Mukatabah A Slave’s Purchase of His Freedom Literally: from katb: to gather and compile.
Mukhabarah A Kind of Sharecropping Literally: from khabara; one of its meanings is to plough earth.
mulzim   Binding
Mumakasah Discounting Literally: reduction.
Munabadhah Sale by Tossing Literally: Form III derivation of nabadha: to toss or throw.
Munahadah Pooling Resources for the Common Good Literally: Form III derivation of nahd: elevation.
Munajazah Spot Sale Literally: Completion of something immediately, without delay.
Munaqalah Exchange of Property between Partners Literally: from naqala: to move something from one place to another.
Munaqasah Tender Process n/a
Muqaddarat Quantified/Estimated Literally: derived from taqdir, determination of the quantity of a thing, its essential nature and end.
muqaradhah   Refer mudharabah
muqasah   Settlement of debt by set off
Muqasarah Portion sale Literally: to hold back or retain.
Muqassah Offset Literally: to equalize; also, to trace something.
Muqassah ikhtiyariyyah Optional Offset n/a
Muqassah jabariyyah Automatic Offset n/a
Muqata'ah Rent Paid to a Waqf Literally: to separate one thing from another.
Muqayadah Barter Literally: Form III derivation of qayd, a substitute.
muqrid   Creditor
muqtada al 'aqd   Purpose of a contract
Muqtada al-'aqd Fundamental Effects of the Contract n/a
Murabahah Mark-up Sale Literally: from ribh: increase
Murabahah, Wadi'ah & Tawliyah Cost plus Profit, Resale with Loss & Resale at Cost Price n/a
Muratalah Trade of Coins for Coins Literally: Form III derivation of ratl, which is a measure of weight.
Mursad Construction-for-Rent Swap with a Waqf Literally: irsad:preparation.
Musadarah Expropriation Literally: an insistent demand; expropriation of property by the government as punishment to the owner.
Musadarah & Ghasb Confiscation & Usurpation n/a
Musana'ah Bribe Literally: a bribe; to do something for someone so that he will do something for you.
Musaqah Tending Fruit Trees for a Portion of the Yield Literally: Form III derivation of saqy: to water or irrigate.
Musawamah Negotiation Literally: haggling between a buyer and seller to decide the price of a good.
Musha' Undivided; Diffused Literally: from shuyu’: to spread and become manifest; also anything jointly owned without any partition.
musharakah   An investment partnership in which all partners are entitled to a share in the profits of a project in a mutually agreed ratio.
Musharakah mutanaqisah Diminishing Partnership n/a
Musta'jir Lessee n/a
Mustaghall Income-Generating Property for Charities Literally: ghallah is the income derived from a crop, fruit, milk, leasing, etc.
Mustawfin Revenue Collector Literally: from wafa, to be complete; Form IV, awfaa means to fulfil (an obligation) without any shortfall. Al-wafi is a homonym; it can be either the person who discharges an obligation or the person who takes his right.
Mutamawwal Of Monetary Value Literally: tamawwala means to take wealth.
Mutaqawwim Having Islamically Recognized Value Literally: qawwama is to straighten or rectify; when used with a commodity, it means to assess its value.
Mutawalli al-waqf Custodian of an Endowment n/a
Muwa'adah Bilateral Promise Literally: two persons make reciprocal promises to each other; a promise is a statement regarding an act a person will do in the future that is related to another person.
Muwasah Beneficence Literally: treatment and cure; also, giving another person a portion of one’s wealth.
Muwat'ah agreement Literally: agreement or conformance.
Muzabanah Barter of Fresh Dates for Dry Literally: Form III derivation of zabn: payment.
Muzara'ah Sharecropping Literally: zara’a originally meant ‘to grow’ but also refers to sowing of seeds. The Form III derivation means to engage in a sharecropping deal.
Muzayadah Auction Literally: Form III derivation of ziyadah: increase. Muzayadah is an auction.
Nadd liquidation Literally: to make manifest.
Nafadh al-'aqd Contract Validity Literally: nafadh means concluding something and being done with it.
Nafaqah Maintenance Literally: what a man spends on himself and his family. Its original meaning is “to take out”.
Najiz Immediately Effective Literally: from najaza: to pass away, expire; also: to be present.
Najsh False Bidding Literally: to conceal oneself; to incite.
Nama' Growth Literally: nama’: elevation and increase. tanmiyyah: to do things which promote growth of a thing or increase in its numbers.
Namudhaj Sample Literally: a small sample of a large amount; a model.
Naqs Diminution Literally: a diminished portion; the opposite of increase.
nas   A clear injunction on explicit textual ruling from Quran or the Sunnah
Nasi'ah Deferred Literally: originally: to delay.
Naz' al-milkiyyah al-jabari Acquisition of Property by Force Literally: naza’a: to uproot or extract. jabr: force.
Nazahah Right Livelihood Literally: originally: great distance.
Nazarat al-awqaf Waqf Supervision Board Literally: nazara means to look. A related word is nazur: a guard.
Nazir al-waqf Waqf Custodian Literally: from nazara: to look at or contemplate.
Nisab The Minimum Amount of Wealth on Which Zakah Is Due Literally: The nisab of anything is its origin.
Qabalah Debt recorder/debt Register Literally: abidance, commitment, guarantee, and warrant.
Qabd Possession Literally: to take something, to own, to possess.
Qabul Acceptance Literally: to accept a report is to believe it; to accept a gift is to take it.
Qalb al-Dayn Debt Modification Literally: qalb means to turn something over.
Qalb al-rahn Turning the Mortgage n/a
Qard Loan n/a
Qard hasan Interest-free Loan n/a
Qard hukmi Indirect Loan n/a
qardh   Islamic loan
Qayyim Guardian Literally: from “qama on something”, i.e. to preserve it and look after its interests.
Qimah Value n/a
Qimar Gambling Literally: Betting and wagering.
Qimi Nonfungible n/a
Qirad Silent-Partner Enterprise Literally: it is derived from qard, to cut.
Qismah Distribution Literally: to distribute or separate shares.
Qismat al-tafriq Separation Distribution n/a
qiyas   Analogical deduction
Qur'ah Drawing Lots Literally: to make a choice by pulling straws, flipping a coin, tossing arrows, or the like.
Ra's al-mal Capital Literally:the Arabic word means the basic wealth of a person excluding other earnings.. Almighty Allah says: ﴿وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُؤُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ﴾ Meaning: “But if ye turn back, ye shall have your capital sums” (2: 279).
Rabb al-mal Wealth/Property Owner Literally:the Rabb in Arabic means the owner of something.
Rahn & daman Mortgage & Guarantee n/a
Ratib Salary Literally:the Arabic word means to be stationary.
Rawaj Circulation Literally:the Arabic word means that something is widespread and much needed.
Ri' Yield Literally:th Arabic word means the indirect gain from any wealth.
Ri'ayah Care Literally: the Arabic word means to protect and take care of something. The one responsible for something is its guardian. The Messenger of Allah said:” Every one of you is a caretaker “. One of the objectives of Sharia is to secure the benefits and interests; in the disposal of the agent; in the guardian of the orphan’s property; the guardian of the endowment; and the worker in Mudaraba.
Riba Usury Literally: riba: addition, growth, elevation. Allah, the Exalted, said: وَتَرَى ا رْألَْضَ هَامِدَةً فَإِذَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا ا اْملَء اهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ وَأَنبَتَتْ مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍ يَهبِجٍ “You see the earth barren and lifeless, but when We pour down rain upon it, it is stirred [to life], it swells, and it puts forth every kind of beautiful growth in pairs” Surah alHajj (22):5. Anyone who transacts in usury (interest) is known as a murabi (usurer).
Riba & Hamish al-Murabahah Usury & the Profit Margin n/a
Riba al-buyu' Usury in Sales n/a
Riba al-fadl Usurious Sales n/a
Riba al-muzabanah Usury of Barter Literally: a Form III derivation of zabana: to push or pay; thus muzabanah would bemutual payment.
Riba al-naqd Spot Riba n/a
Riba al-nasa' Usurious Loans n/a
Riba al-nasi'ah/riba al-duyun Interest on Debt Literally: nasi’ah is derived from the verbal noun nasa’: delay. Therefore, riba al-nasi’ah is the stipulation of a premium paid to the lender in return for his allowing a delay in repayment. It is also known as al-riba al-jali (obvious usury).
Riba al-qurud Usury of Loans n/a
Ribh Profit The Arabic word means the benefit from trade.
Ribh & Ghallah Profit & Returns n/a
Ribh & Nama' Profit & Increment n/a
Ribh & Ri' Profit & Yield n/a
Ribh Ma lam yudman Gain of non guaranteed n/a
Rida Consent Literally: The Arabic word means to accept with free will and it is the opposite of discontent.
Rihan Wager, bet n/a
Rishwah Bribery Literally:The Arabic word refers to the means or assistance to achieve an aim.
Rishwah & Suht Bribery & ill-gotten wealth n/a
Rizq & 'Ata' Ration & Gift n/a
Ruqba Donation under Expectation Literally:The Arabic word means ‘to expect’; in the sense of ‘I except the arrival of someone’.
Ruqba & 'Umra Life provision & Life Grants n/a
Sabaq Prize Literally:the Arabic word means competition; and includes the prize given to the winner in a competition.
Sabi mumayyiz Discriminating Minor Literally: tamyiz: to distinguish between two or more things; mumayyiz: one who makes distinctions.
Sadaqah Alms / Charity The Arabic word means the charity given for the sake of Allah.
Sadaqah & Rishwah Charity & Bribe n/a
Sadaqah, Zakah & 'Atiyyah Charities, Alms & Gift n/a
Sadaqh Jariyah Continuous/Durable Alms n/a
Sadd al-dhara'i' Blocking the Means n/a
sadd zari'ah   Blocking the means to something forbidden in Shariah
Safah Poor Judgment Literally: the Arabic word means a weakness of intellect and it is the opposite of‘discernment’, ‘prudence’ and ‘sound judgment’.
Safqah Transaction Literally: the Arabic word means to clap because the Arabs used to clasp hands when a contract is concluded between them.
Saftajah Bill of Exchange Literally: an Arabized Persian word meaning: sturdy or reinforced.
sahibul mal   Capital provider
Sahih& Ijza' Validity & Satisfaction n/a
Sahm Share The Arabic word means a portion and a lot.
Sakk Certificates n/a
Salaf loan Literally: The Arabic word means something that goes before and finished.. Allah, the Exalted, said: ﴿كُلُوا وَا بْرشَُوا هَنِيئًا بِ أَسْلَفْتُمْ الأَيَّامِ ا اْخلَلِيَةِ﴾ “Eat and drink at ease for what you put forth in days gone by” Surah al-Haqqah (69):24.
Samsarah Brokerage Literally: an Arabized Persian word meaning: to intermediate between a seller and buyer.
Sarf Money exchange n/a
Sariqah Theft Literally:the Arabic word means to take way another’s property in secret.
Sawm Bargain n/a
Sayb Buried Treasure Literally:the Arabic word means a ‘gift and a donation’.
Sayrafah Money changing or Exchange Literally and Technically: skill in distinguishing real money from counterfeit (or in the days of metal coins, distinguishing coins of good quality from those of low quality). It also means a sale of money for money and the profession of moneychanging.
Sayrafiyy Exchanger, money-changer, banker Literally and Technically: a person who works in trading currencies and coins and is an expert in testing the validity of money.
Shakhsiyyah Personality n/a
Sharikah & Mudarabah Partnership & Profit Sharing n/a
Sharikah or shirkah Partnership Literally: it means something shared by two or more persons in a way that none of them individually owns any part of it. Each one of the partners is known as a sharik.
Shart Condition Literally: sign; its plurals are shurut and ashrat, as in ashrat al-sa’ah (signs of the Day of Judgment).
Shart ja'li A Contracting Party’s Condition n/a
Shart jaza'i Punitive Condition Literally: jaza’: recompense.
Shart shar'i A Shari’ah Condition n/a
Shartan fi bay' Dual Conditions In One Sale Contract Literally: shart refers to an obligation imposed or a commitment undertaken by a stipulation in a sale contract and the like.
Shatat Excess Both technically and lexically the Arabic word refers to farness and it means injustice and oppression. The Hadith says:” there should be neither diminution nor excess in price-fixing.
Shek & Kambiyalah Check & Bill n/a
Shirk Share n/a
Shirkah muqayyadah Limited Partnership n/a
Shirkah mutlaqah Unrestricted Partnership n/a
Shirkat al-'aqd Contractual Partnership n/a
Shirkat al-'ayn Partnership in an Asset n/a
Shirkat al-'inan Cooperative Partnership Literally: ‘inan is derived from ‘unun and mu’anah which mean appearance and exposure. It is so named because a partner involves himself with the other partner’s property and shares it with him.
Shirkat al-a'mal Labour Partnership Another name for sharikat al-abdan.
Shirkat al-abdan Labour Partnership n/a
Shirkat al-amwal Investment Partnership n/a
Shirkat al-dayn Partnership in a Debt n/a
Shirkat al-ibahah Partnership in the Lawful n/a
Shirkat al-jabr Involuntary Co-ownership n/a
Shirkat al-milk Proprietary Partnership n/a
Shirkat al-mufawadah Equal-Share Partnership n/a
Shirkat al-wujuh Credit Partnership Literally: a partnership of faces (reputations).
Shirkat ikhtiyariyyah Voluntary Partnership n/a
Shirkat jabriyyah Involuntary Partnership n/a
Shubhah Doubtful Matter Literally:the Arabic word means ‘something suspicious and unclear’ it is used to show confusion between two things.
Shuf'ah Pre-emption Literally:the Arabic word refers to even as the opposite of odd.
Si'ir Price n/a
Sighah Formula Literally: from sagha: to shape something in a particular form; sighah is the form into which the thing is shaped.
Sihhat al-'Aqd Validity of the contract n/a
Sijill Register Literally:the Arabic word means a copybook that can be written on.
Sil'ah Commodity Technically and lexically it means the commodities of trade, as opposed to money.
Silah present Literally:the Arabic word means to make ‘a link between two things’ and it is used to refer to a donation and gift that someone gives as a present.
Sina'ah Industry The Arabic word refers to handicraft.
Siyasah Policy Literally: to take care about something and organize its affair.
sorf   Contract of currency exchange
Subrah Heap Literally:the Arabic word means a pile of something.
Suht Ill-Gotten Property Literally:the Arabic word means the peel of something that is pull out. In this sense the eradicating punishment is called so in Arabic as Almighty Allah said: ﴿فَيُسْحِتَكُمْ بِعَذَابٍ﴾ Meaning: “Lest He destroy you (at once)” (20: 61).
sukuk   Financial documents whose value is backed by certain assets.
Sukuk Al-Muqaradah Certificate of Mudaraba n/a
Sulh Reconciliation The Arabic word means reconciliation between people and to remove any alienation between them.
Suqut Cancel The Arabic word means ‘to fall from high’.
Suriyyah Simulated Literally: derived from surah: an image, a representation of something. sawwara: to depict. to present an act in a certain form while concealing something else that is the actual ojective; for example, two parties going through the motions of a sale and concealing the fact that they don’t really want to transfer ownership; they only appear to do so to avoid the harm that has forced them to resort to this pretext.
syart jaza'i   Penalty clause
Ta'addi Transgression Literally: to transgress limits that should be observed; the related term ‘udwan combines connotations of injustice, aggression and transgression. Allah, the Exalted, said: ﴿إِذْ يَعْدُونَ السَّبْتِ﴾ “…when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath” Surah al-A’raf (7):163. It also means to pass from one thing to another.
Ta'dil Amendment Literally: ta’dil has two meanings: 1) to adjust something so that it becomes as it should be; 2) to testify that someone is honest.
Ta'mim Nationalization n/a
Ta'min Insurance Literally: Form II derivation of amina: to feel secure; ta'min: to make someone elsefeel secure or to ensure something's security in fact.
Ta'wid Compensation (Literally: to substitute one thing for another. Each of the items is called ‘iwad (a’wad
Ta'wid & Daman Compensation/Indemnity & Guarantee n/a
ta'widh   Compensation charged to a debtor for late payment
Ta'zir mali Discretionary Financial Punishment ta’zir: to prevent and repel. It is used for chastisement and hitting because they stop a transgressor from repeating the offense.
tabadul al-huquq   Exchange of rights
Tabarru' Voluntary Donation Literally: a voluntary act; a gift which is not preceded by a request.
tabarru'at   Donation
Tabi' Ancillary Literally: following; succeeding.
tabiat al-'aqd   Nature of contract
Tadlis Fraud Literally: from dalas: darkness and concealment; tadlis: to conceal a defect; e.g., in a sale it means concealing the defect of the commodity from the buyer.
Tadlis & Ghish Fraud & Deception n/a
Tadlis & Khilabah Fraud & Cajole n/a
Tadlis and Taghrir Fraud and Misrepresentation n/a
Tafarruq Separation Literally: and Technically: distinction of one thing from another. The Qur’an is called al-Furqan because it distinguishes between truth and falsehood. In the hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him), “A combined herd should not be separated, nor should separate herds be gathered for fear of zakah.” Jurists also focused their attention on separation from a contract session, based on the hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him), “A buyer and seller have the option [to cancel the sale] as long as they have not yet separated.” Some jurists consider it to mean physically separating, whereas others say it is verbal separation, i.e., by changing the topic of discussion after having reached agreement.
Tafarruq al-safqah Composite Transaction Literally: from safqah to slap; it is customary for the buyer and seller to shake hands to indicate that they have sealed a transaction.
Taflis Judgment of Bankruptcy Literally: an announcement by a judge or ruler that someone is bankrupt.
Tafrit Negligence Literally: to fail to do what ought to be done.
Taghrim Fining Literally: to cause someone to be liable (gharim) and fined. Ghurm is a something that adheres to someone till he discharges it, so it is used to refer to a debt. A debtor is called a gharim, while a creditor is called a gharim. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Verily, begging is not suitable except for three kinds of people; for an extremely poor person or an insolvent debtor or one who owes bloodmoney.”
Taghrir Deceive Literally: to trick and mislead in order to harm or expose to risk.
Taghyir Alteration Literally: to transform something from one state to another.
Taghyir, Tabdil & Ibdal Change, Alteration & Substitution n/a
Tahass Apportionment Literally: from hissah: share; portion. Ahassa: to allot someone his share; hassa:to share something with someone. Tahassa has a similar meaning, but it has more than one subject, and they do the action to each other; it can be used to describe creditors dividing the assets of a bankrupt debtor so that each one takes a portion of them.
Tahkim Arbitration Literally: to delegate someone to arbitrate. The arbitrator is called a hakam, and onewho seeks his judgment is called a muhtakim.
Takaful Mutual Cooperation Literally: Form VI derivation of kafala: to take responsibility to care for someone and provide for him, as in guardianship of an orphan. In the Glorious Qur’an: ﴿وَكَفَّلَهَا زَكَرِيَّا﴾ [“So her Lord accepted her with good acceptance and caused her to grow in a good manner] and made Zachariah her guardian” Surah Al ‘Imran (3):37.
Takharuj Waiver Literally: derived from akhraja: to take out or put out. Form VI, takharaja, involvestwo or more subjects. Among its meanings is that a group of people all contribute thesame amount of money for their collective expenditure.
Takharuj & Sulh Waiver & Reconciliation n/a
Takhliyah To Vacate Literally: to release and allow.
Takhliyah & Qabd Relinquish and Hold n/a
Takhliyah & Taslim Relinquish and Delivery n/a
Takhyir & 'Adam al-luzum Option of cancellation & Revocability n/a
Takhyir fi al-'Aqd & Iqalah Option of Revocation & Rescind n/a
Takhzin Storage Literally: khazn and takhzin both mean to store something and take care of it. A khazanah is a warehouse or depository. A khazzan is someone with much to store, or a treasurer.
taklik   Being contingent to a matter
takwil   Interpretation
takyif   Adaptation
Talaqqi al-rukban Meeting Caravans before They Reach the Market Literally: talaqqi: to receive; to encounter and meet by chance; rukban: a group of riders.
Talji'ah Compulsion Literally: to force someone to do something.
Tamlik Alienation Literally: to transfer ownership to someone else.
Tamlik & Isqat Alienation of Property & Extinction of Right n/a
Tamlik Intifa' & Tamlik Manfa' TAMLIK INTIFA' & TAMLIK MANFA' n/a
Tamlik Intifa' & Tamlik Manfa' Transfer of the Use of Usufruct & Alienation of the Usufruct n/a
Tandid Liquidation Literally: to convert tangible assets into cash. Dinars and dirhams are called nadd (cash), as opposed to goods.
Tanjiz Implementation Literally: to terminate something and complete it without delay. It is said that someone carries out someone else’s need (najjaza hajatahu); i.e., immediately. Najiz refers to something that is present.
Tanjiz & Fawr Accomplishment & Immediate n/a
Taqabbul Acceptance Literally: agreement to take something as a reward.
Taqadum Time lapse Literally: to become old.
Taqdir al-Amwal Estimation Literally: taqdir: to determine something’s essence and its value, for instance, a judge sets the amount of compensation or a guarantee or a donation at one thousand dinars. In a hadith, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said about the month, “Calculate it,” i.e., in case the moon cannot be seen, then the month should be considered to be thirty-days long.
Taqsit Installment Payment Literally: from qist: a determined and delimited share (pl. aqsat). taqsit: to turn something into determined shares.
Taqyidat Restrictive Contracts n/a
Tarakh Postponement Literally: to delay and procrastinate; also: when something takes a long time.
Tarikah Diseased property Literally: what is left from something; a more specific meaning is the wealth left by a dead person.
Tas'ir Pricefixing Literally: from si’r: price; tas’ir: to set the due price for a commodity.
Tasarruf Disposal Literally: to use something in various ways.
Tasarruf, Iltizam & 'Aqd Disposition, obligation & contract n/a
Tashih Correction Literally: derived from sihhah: health, to be free of disease and defects; tashih: to get rid of a disease or defect.
Taslim Delivery Literally: taslim has many meaning, among them: delivery, to turn something over to someone, as in delivery of a commodity.
Tasriyah Leaving an Animal Unmilked before Selling It Literally: to gather. It is used for water when its flow is blocked so that it pools and for milk left to gather in the udder.
Tataruh al-Daynayn Mutual Release of Debts Literally: from taraha: to throw something or cast it away. Form VI makes the act mutual between two subjects.
Tawarruq Monetization Literally: from wariq: silver; also dirhams, which are coined from silver. Awraqa: to become rich.
Tawarruq & Bay' al-'inah Monetisation & Buy-Back Agreement n/a
tawatu   Pre-planned
Tawliyah Resale at Cost Literally: to appoint someone to a position of authority and responsibility regarding some matter.
Tawriq Securitization n/a
Tawthiq Registration of transactions Literally: Form II, from thiqqah: trust and assurance; a mithaq is a firm covenant. Tawthiq of any matter is to thoroughly secure it until one is assured about it; a wathiqah is a document in which a matter is registered (pl.: watha’iq); muwathiq: a notary.
Tawthiq & Tasjil Documentation & Registration n/a
Tawzi' Distribution Literally: to divide and share; e.g., to distribute money to poor people means dividing it between them.
thabit   Firm or decisive
Thaman Price Literally: the counter-value or compensation ('iwad) the seller takes for his commodity. The plural is athman.
Thaman al-mithl Reasonable Price n/a
Thaman musamma Stipulated Price n/a
Thaman, Si'r & Qimah Price, Rate & Value n/a
Tibr Raw Gold/Silver Literally: a term used for unsmelted gold or silver; it is also applied to all raw jewels before molding. A hadith states: “Gold for gold, whether raw or ready money, and silver for silver, whether raw or ready money.”
Tibr & Dhahab Raw Gold & Gold n/a
Tijarah Commerce Literally: mutual exchange, i.e., to give something as compensation for something else, e.g., a sale.
Udhr Excuse Literally: ‘udhr is the justification used as an excuse.
Uhdah Trusteeship Literally: it has several meanings: obligation, commitment, a covenant, an oath used to cement an undertaking between two parties, a security and guarantee.
ujrah   Service fee
Umalah Wage Literally: ‘amal is work, vocation, and action and includes acts of the heart as well as those of the limbs.
Umulah Commission n/a
Umum al-balwa General Tribulation Literally: ‘umum is comprehensiveness; balwa (tribulation) is derived from ibtila’, a test or trial.
Uqud al-idh'an Adhesion Contracts Literally: idh’an means submission.
Uqud al-irfaq Contracts of benefiting Literally: irfaq: to benefit someone.
Uqud al-tamlikat Possession-Transfer Contracts n/a
Urbun Down Payment Literally: to pay in advance, to offer, and an advance payment that secures a sale.
Urf Custom Literally: ma’ruf means benevolence.
wa'd   Promise
Wa'd Promise Literally: informing someone that some good or harm will be done to them; it is usually used for a promise of good, while wa’id (warning) is used for a threat to inflict harm.
wa'd ghayr mulzim   Non-binding promise
wa'd mulzim   Binding promise
Wa'yun Implicit Promise Literally: promise.
Wad' To Remove or Lay Down Literally: to remove, lay down, throw down; also used for childbirth; wad’ al-dayn: to absolve someone of a debt; wad’ al-yad: literally: to lay one’s hand on; i.e., to seize or take possession of.
Wad' al-jawa'ih Contract Waiver Due to Calamity Literally: jawa’ih is the plural of ja’ihah: a calamity that destroys wealth; e.g., a drought or strife. Derived from jawh, to uproot.
Wadi'ah Sale at a Loss Literally: loss.
Wadi'ah (2) Bailment Literally: from wada’a: to leave something; awda’ahu malan means to leave property with someone so that it will be with him.
wadiah   A safe keeping contract which is based on trust
wadiah yad dhamanah   A guaranteed safe keeping contract
Wafa' Fulfilment Literally: completion; to fulfil one’s pledge; to adhere to a path of beneficence and safeguarding pledges to partners.
Waqf Endowment Literally: to retain or hold back.
Waqf al-'awarid Contingent Endowment Literally: ‘awarid are emergencies or unexpected events.
Waqf al-sabil Public Endowment n/a
Waqfiyyah List of Endowments n/a
Waqi'ah New Issue Literally: from waqa’a: to fall; a waqi’ah is a new event that befalls.
Wasf Attribute Literally: attribute.
Wasi Executor and Guardian Literally: related to wasiyyah: which originally means to link one thing with another. A wasi is one who is requested, entrusted or ordered to take care of something.
Wasiyyah Will or Bequest Literally: wasiyyah: to link one thing with another; to instruct or advise; a promise taken from someone to do something on behalf of the principal during his life or after his death; to assign wealth to another.
Wathiqah Debt Security Literally: skilled and competent performance; permanence.
Wazi'fah Task Literally: an amount of wage or food or provision for a certain period of time.
Wilayah Guardianship Literally: to care for something or have authority over it; also, to aid and support.
Wisr Register of Transactions Literally: a written record of a sale; derived from isr: a pledge; the record of sale is derived from it because it contains a connotation of pledging. Some said: the pledges that the buyer and seller stipulate and take from each other. Some said: The book in which a king records land grants.
Yad al-amanah Entrustment Literally: the entrusted hand.
Yad al-daman A Position of Liability Literally: the entrusted hand.
Yasar Ease Literally: Comfort and wealth.
Yasir Paltry Literally: easy; also paltry, small in quantity.
Zakah Compulsory Alms Literally:the Arabic word means increase and enhancement/augmentation.
Ziyadah Increase, augmentation The Arabic word means to increase and to add something.

Source: ISRA Compendium 2010